Vision is the sense we most depend on in our daily lives to interpret our surroundings. Visual information from the world enters the eye and reaches the retina. Ganglion cells in the retina send the information via the lateral geniculate nucleus to the primary visual cortex (V1). Neurons in V1 extract simple local features such as oriented lines and edges, by responding selectively to lines or edges with a particular slope (orientation selectivity). The V1 sends its output to a hierarchical series of higher visual areas, which represent a variety of higher order visual features, including motion, image segmentation, and object recognition. Impairment of the visual pathway at any stage will potentially cause blindness. Thus, modulating the visual pathway could be a therapeutic target of visual impairment. Acetylcholine modulates neuronal activities in various brain regions to control brain functions including attention, memory, and cognition. Here we determined the effect of donepezil, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, on visual recognition by examining the visual detection task and V1 activity in mice.