The peel of Citrus kawachiensis (Kawachi Bankan), a citrus species grown in Ehime, Japan, is abundant in auraptene. Hyperglycemia and brain ischemia induce inflammation and oxidative stress and cause massive damage in the brain; therefore, we examined the anti-inflammatory and other effects of the dried peel powder of C. kawachiensis in the type 2 diabetic db/db mice model and global cerebral ischemia mice. The C. kawachiensis treatment inhibited astroglial activation in the hippocampus and the hyperphosphorylation of tau protein in hippocampal neurons, and also relieved the suppression of neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in the db/db mice. The C. kawachiensis treatment inhibited microglial and astroglial activation, and neuronal cell death in the hippocampus of transient global cerebral ischemia mice. It was suggested that the dried peel powder of C. kawachiensis exerts anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects in the brain. Auraptene, a coumarin compound, have been shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects in peripheral tissues; therefore, we attempted to demonstrate the effect in the brains in streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemic mice and transient global cerebral ischemia mice. Auraptene administration showed the similar effects as the peel of C. kawachiensis in the hippocampus of these mice models. These results suggested that auraptene have potential effects as a neuroprotective agent in the peel of C. kawachiensis.