Fluid management is performed with reference to biological indicators such as blood pressure (BP) for patients with hypovolemia. Since it is little known about elasticity of the conduit artery, contributing to effective peripheral circulation via Windkessel effects, at the onset of hypovolemia as well as during the therapeutic intervention, we investigated effects of blood removal and subsequent blood transfusion on the arterial stiffness in anesthetized rabbits. Under the monitoring of BP, blood flow of common carotid artery and arterial stiffness using the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI), 40 ml of blood was withdrawn from the brachial artery at a rate of 1 ml/min, and the blood was subsequently transfused at a rate of 2 ml/min. Blood removal decreased the BP and common carotid blood flow, but increased the CAVI. Blood transfusion returned all parameters to the baseline. The amount of blood requiring complete recovery of the common carotid arterial blood flow was equal to that of the CAVI, but more blood transfusion was needed when monitored the BP. These results suggest that consecutive measurement of arterial stiffness, besides the BP monitoring, can be beneficial for guiding fluid management of hypovolemia.