It is suggested that the smoking during pregnancy might impair the neurodevelopment of offspring, emotional and cognitive function. Previously, we clarified that prenatal nicotine exposure affects the proliferation and maturation of progenitor cells to glutamatergic neuron during neurodevelopment in the medial PFC, which may be associated with cognitive deficits in the offspring.  Recently, there is a hypothesis that inflammation during pregnancy may induce the brain dysfunction of offspring. In this study, we examined whether prenatal nicotine exposure might affect the expression of chemokines in mice. 
Dams were exposed to nicotine solution (0.2 mg/mL) dissolved in 2 % saccharin by drinking till embryonic day 14 (E14) to birth (P0) of offspring. On E15, 16, 18 and P1, we investigated the protein levels of 23 cytokines in the brain. 
In the nicotine-exposed group, IL-1alpha level decreased, but IL-5 and IL-10 increased compared to those in the control group on E15. On the contrary, the levels of IL-1alpha and IL-5 were not affected but IL-10 decreased significantly compared to those in the control group on P1. These results suggest that prenatal nicotine exposure may influence the cytokine balance in the brain of offspring.

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